Israel-Lebanon GAA was signed on March 23, 1949 by Lieutenant Colonel Mordechai Makleff for Israel and Lieutenant Colonel Tawfiq Salim for Lebanon in Raʾs Naqura. Israeli troops, who had withdrawn from parts of southern Lebanon they had occupied in the summer of 1948, agreed to define the ceasefire demarcation lines along the former international borders, thus creating more stability in Israeli-Lebanese relations for more than two decades. After the “black September” of 1970, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the various Palestinian guerrilla groups moved the site of their operations from Jordan to the refugee camps in Lebanon, making the Israeli-Lebanese border a recurring battlefield. Israel attacked and briefly occupied southern Lebanon in March 1978 and again in June 1982. After the 1982 invasion, Israel failed to push Lebanon to reach a peace agreement and the border region remained exacerbated instability for nearly two decades; The presence of a United Nations Special Force (UNIFIL) has not changed much. The final withdrawal of Israeli forces from southern Lebanon in 2000 marked the return of relative calm to that area. In the absence of another binding agreement, the 1949 Israel-Lebanon GAA remains the only legal instrument governing relations between the two countries. The Jordanian-Israeli Agreement stated: “Nothing in this Agreement shall affect in any way the rights, claims and positions of any of the parties to the peaceful settlement of the questions of Palestine, the provisions of this Agreement being dictated exclusively by military considerations” (art. II.2. “The ceasefire demarcation lines defined in Articles V and VI of this Agreement shall be agreed by the Parties, without prejudice to future territorial settlements or related borders or claims of a Party.”; (Art.
VI.9) Iraq, whose forces actively participated in the war (although it has no common border with Israel), withdrew its troops from the region in March 1949. The front occupied by Iraqi forces was covered by the ceasefire agreement between Israel and Jordan and there was no separate agreement with Iraq. The Green Line or (before) 1967 border or 1949 ceasefire border, is the demarcation line defined in the 1949 ceasefire agreements between the armies of Israel and those of its neighbors (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria) after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. It served as the de facto border for the State of Israel from 1949 to the Six Day War of 1967. The Green Line was intended as a demarcation line and not as a permanent border. The ceasefire agreements of 1949 were clear (at Arab insistence) that they did not create permanent borders.